Only one in three OECD employees has wages agreed by collective agreement. The 36-member Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has become a strong supporter of collective bargaining to ensure that falling unemployment also leads to higher wages.  All of the above-mentioned agreements address issues such as conditions and termination of employment contracts, working time, minimum wage, holiday and sickness benefits, etc. As has already been said, these agreements are often supplemented by local collective agreements. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. The Act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate, spy, harass or terminate workers because of their union membership, or to retaliate against them because they participate in campaigns or other “concerted activities”, form company unions or refuse to negotiate collective agreements with the union representing their employees. It is also illegal to require any employee to join a union as a condition of employment.  Trade unions are also able to guarantee safe working conditions and fair remuneration for their work. Other collective agreements contain rules on the relationship between an employer and an individual worker. Such agreements may be concluded, both at the central level, by the parties described above, and at the local level, between a given employer and the local trade union represented in the enterprise. It is customary for a central agreement on the working and employment conditions of each employee to be supplemented by local agreements.
This is the standard procedure among member companies of the Swedish Industrial Employers` Association. In June 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada considered at length the reasons for considering collective bargaining a human right. In Facilities Subsector Bargaining Association v. British Columbia, the Court found that in Sweden, approximately 90% of employees are covered by collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden has no legislation on minimum wages or laws to extend collective agreements to disorganized employers. Unorganized employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many are not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to companies and workers covered by collective agreements.  In a workplace where the majority of workers voted in favour of union representation, a committee of workers and union representatives negotiates with management a contract on wages, working time, social benefits and other conditions of employment, such as. B protection against termination of employment without simple reason. Individual negotiations are prohibited. Once the works council and management have agreed on a contract, it will be put to the vote of all workers in the workplace.
If the contract is approved, it is usually in effect for a fixed term of years and, once that term is completed, it is renegotiated between staff and management. There are sometimes quarrels over the union contract; This is particularly the case for workers made redundant at a trade union workplace for no simple reason. These are then the subject of an arbitration procedure that is similar to an informal trial; A neutral arbitrator then decides whether there is denunciation or other breach and, if so, orders its correction. In 24 U.S. states, employees working in a unionized company may be required to contribute to representation expenses (for example. B in disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues have negotiated a union security clause in their contract with management. Contributions are usually 1-2% of salary….